Articles Posted in Domestic Violence

courtroomWhen a court sentences a defendant to community custody in a Washington criminal case, there are some conditions the court must impose and others that the court may impose in the court’s discretion.  These conditions are set forth in RCW 9.94A.703.  Pursuant to the statute, the court may require an offender to “[p]articipate in crime-related treatment or counseling services” or “in rehabilitative programs” that are reasonably related to the offense, the risk of reoffending, or community safety.  Additionally, a court may order an offender convicted of a domestic violence crime to participate in a domestic violence perpetrator program, if either the offender or the victim have a minor child.

In a recent case, a defendant challenged the imposition of domestic violence treatment.  The defendant was convicted of second degree assault, unlawful imprisonment, and felony harassment of his former girlfriend.  The jury found the defendant and the victim were members of the same family or household.

The state asked the trial court to require the defendant to complete domestic violence treatment.  He objected.  The defendant argued the statute only authorized the court to require domestic violence treatment if the offender or victim had a minor child.  The trial court found it did have the authority to require the treatment and did so. The defendant appealed.

To convict a defendant of felony violation of a no-contact order, the state must prove that an order existed and that the defendant knew of the order.  The order is therefore generally relevant and likely admissible.  In a recent case, however, the defendant challenged the admission of a no-contact order because he had stipulated to the existence of his order and his knowledge of it.Legal News Gavel

The defendant was charged with several Washington domestic violence offenses, including felony violation of a no-contact order, after the woman with whom he was living told police he assaulted her.  The defendant was under Department of Corrections supervision at the time.  The defendant pleaded guilty to some of the charges, but the charge for felony violation of a no-contact order went to trial.

The state planned to admit two no-contact orders into evidence.   To prove the charge, the state would have to prove that there was a no-contact order in place and that the defendant knew of it.  The defendant requested that the no-contact order be excluded because he had agreed to stipulate to knowing of its existence.  The judge ultimately admitted the no-contact order over the defendant’s objection.

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In Washington domestic violence cases, the prosecution or defense may want to present evidence of what one of the involved parties said about the events.  Hearsay evidence is generally not allowed, so such statements must fall within an exception to the hearsay rule to be admissible.   A Washington appeals court recently considered whether a victim’s statement to a police officer was appropriately admitted into evidence.

Legal News GavelThe couple lived together in the woman’s home at the time of the incident.  They got into an argument and the woman reached to take back a cell phone she had given the defendant.  According to the court’s opinion, the defendant wrapped his arm around her neck and strangled her for about 10 seconds.

The woman called 911.  When the deputies arrived, the woman described these events to one of them.

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The state can get a conviction in a Washington domestic violence case even when the alleged victim does not testify.  In such cases, it is very important for the defendant to fight the admission of other improper evidence that may be harmful to the defense.  In a recent case, a defendant was convicted of second degree assault and 13 counts of violation of a domestic violence no-contact order despite the fact his wife failed to appear to testify.

Legal News GavelA woman called her daughter and told her she had been in an altercation with her husband and he had choked her.  The woman then drove to her daughter’s home in Idaho.  The woman said she was afraid of her husband.  The daughter saw marks on her mother’s face and neck and asked if she should call the police.

When the officer arrived, he observed injuries consistent with strangulation.  The woman told the officer she did not feel safe in her home where the incident occurred.  The officer contacted the local authorities in Washington and an Asotin County detective came to the daughter’s home.  The detective also noticed injuries consistent with strangulation and took photos to document them.

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Romantic and familial relationships can grow contentious and sometimes become violent.  Sometimes relationships can become so contentious that one party seeks to have a court intervene and issue a civil protection order to prevent the other party from contacting them or engaging in other activities.  Washington civil protection order attorneys know that a victim does not have to wait until they are seriously injured to seek a civil protection order.  In some cases, a court may issue a civil protection order even if there has not been a physical assault, as seen in one recent case.

Legal News GavelThe former husband appealed a domestic violence protection order (DVPO) issued in favor of his ex-wife.  In her petition, the ex-wife stated her ex-husband had violated the no-contact order entered after the divorce.  She stated that he had threatened to kill her when she filed the protection order and that he had threatened her many times.  She stated he had told her she could either be with him, or he would keep harassing her.  She alleged he had a history of both suicidal and violent behaviors.  The court granted her a temporary order and scheduled a hearing.

At the hearing, the ex-wife testified that she was afraid for her safety.  She said she wanted the DVPO because the restraining order that was already in place was not working.  The ex-husband also testified at the hearing and either denied or tried to explain the allegations.

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Some evidence, though relevant, may be unfairly prejudicial.  A court must balance the probative value of evidence against the risk of unfair prejudice.  If the risk of unfair prejudice substantially outweighs its probative value, the evidence must be excluded.  Washington domestic violence attorneys know that some facts about an alleged victim could be prejudicial to their client.

Legal News GavelA Washington appeals court recently considered whether the trial court erred in allowing limited evidence of the alleged victim’s pregnancy when the defendant appealed his conviction of a misdemeanor violation of a court order with a special finding of domestic violence.

There was a domestic violence no-contact order prohibiting the defendant from contacting or coming within 500 feet of the mother of his child.  The woman was pregnant at the time with another child that was believed to be the defendant’s.

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A person has a fundamental right to parent his or her own natural children.  When a court places a sentencing condition on a person that limits those fundamental rights, it must consider whether there are reasonable alternatives that will further the state’s interest.  If there are no reasonable alternatives, the court must narrowly tailor the condition.  Washington domestic violence attorneys handling these cases must understand the family law implications of any sentencing conditions imposed by the court. This issue recently arose in a case before the Washington Court of Appeals.

Legal News GavelThe couple had three children together.  In 2015, there were no-contact orders in place keeping the husband from contacting the wife of the six-year-old daughter.  Sheriff’s deputies believed the husband was at the wife’s residence.  They did not receive a response when they first knocked on the door, but the wife ultimately answered and let them in.

One of the deputies found a locked door and heard noises from inside the room.  He forced the door open and found men’s clothing and shoes.  The window was open, but the deputies had observed it to be closed when they walked around the house before entering.

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Washington defendants are entitled to a unanimous jury verdict.  Washington criminal defense attorneys know, however, that this general rule can become complicated when there are multiple acts underlying the charges.  If multiple acts could each form the basis of a charge, and the state presents evidence of each, either the state must elect which act is the basis of the charge, or the jury must be instructed on unanimity.  If the multiple acts are all part of a continuing course of conduct, there is no requirement for an election or instruction.  Additionally, multiple acts may be presented as alternative means of committing the crime.  If there is sufficient evidence to support each means, express unanimity is not required.  A Washington appeals court recently addressed these issues in a case in which a man was charged with residential burglary after allegedly violating a no-contact order and assaulting his wife.

Legal News GavelThe defendant was charged with three counts of felony violation of a court order, along with two assault charges, residential burglary, and third-degree malicious mischief.  The charges stemmed from allegations that the defendant violated a no-contact order and assaulted his wife, sister, and mother. The defendant and his wife were separated, and she had obtained a no-contact order that prohibited him from coming within 1,000 feet of her or her home.  The defendant had several misdemeanor convictions for violating the order.

The defendant’s wife testified that he came to her home twice in April 2015, but he left when she called the police.  He came back in July 2015 and came in through the back door.  She testified that he was intoxicated and called her names.  She also testified that he kicked her, threw her on the couch, and struck her.  The defendant’s parents and sister lived with his wife.  The defendant started to leave when his sister told him she was calling the police.  She grabbed his shirt to stop him, and he bit her hand until she kicked him.  He pushed his mother to the ground and stepped on her chest as he left.

Washington civil protection order attorneys understand that domestic violence can be a complex issue that reaches beyond the couple. Children may become involved by witnessing the violence or by being threatened.  Washington law allows a person to petition for a protection order on behalf of himself or herself, or on behalf of minor family or household members.

Legal News GavelA Washington Court of Appeals, however, recently held that a mother could not obtain a protection order on behalf of her child when the child was not “present” for the violence and did not have fear of imminent harm, bodily injury, or assault.  The Washington Supreme Court disagreed.

In this case, the mother petitioned for a domestic violence protection order against her son’s father on behalf of herself and her children following a history of domestic violence.  According to the Washington Supreme Court opinion, the man had repeatedly physically and emotionally assaulted his son’s mother.  He pushed her to the ground while she was pregnant, had tried to smother her with a pillow, pulled a knife on her, threatened to kidnap their son, and threatened to do something horrible to her daughters.  He also threatened to kill her, her children, and himself.

Threats of domestic violence should be taken seriously.  However, not all statements that suggest potential violence are true threats that can form the basis of a criminal conviction.  A Washington appeals court recently considered whether a statement that was made to a third party and that did not include a specific statement of an intent to harm was a true threat.

Legal News GavelThe husband was convicted of two gross misdemeanor counts of harassment – domestic violence.  One of the counts was based upon a statement by the defendant to a third party.

According to the court’s opinion, there were issues of infidelity by both parties, and  the opinion references two extramarital relationships of the wife.  The first involved a neighbor in the same apartment complex as the couple who had also served in the military with the defendant.  The neighbor told the defendant about the affair and subsequently cut off most contact with the couple until the incident leading to the husband’s arrest.

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